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Liquid electrolyte batteries that have been floated at a low voltage for long periods need to be periodically equalized. Equalization is the process that equalizes the specific gravity in all the cells. Basically, equalization amounts to a controlled overcharge.
Current Limiting Required
To equalize a battery, you need a charge source which can be current limited, such as the Smart Alternator Regulator. Set the current limit at 3-7% of the Amp-hour rating of the battery. That is, for a 100 Amp-hour battery set the current limit at 3-7 Amps. Apply that current to the battery for about 4 hours, or until the battery voltage rises to 16.2 Volts. The Smart Alternator can equalize batteries automatically.
Turn Off Voltage Sensitive Loads
Since the battery voltage rises to 16.2 Volts, be sure to turn off all loads which are voltage sensitive. Battery temperature should also be observed during the process to prevent overheating.